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Open Educational Resources and Learning Centres

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1. Open Educational Resources are customizable MOOCs-like pre-university level courses which offer education and training at all levels throughout the world, Read more and feel free to join Management Class Global Group.

2. Learning Centres  using Management Class' customizable pubic programmes, courses and modules introduce, publish and share our institutional and organizational partners' degree or higher vocational qualifications level programmes and courses to international clients for online and/or campus-based delivery.

Published on Aug 6, 2013

Most states and districts in the 1990s adopted Outcome-Based Education (OBE) in some form or another. A state would create a committee to adopt standards, and choose a quantitative instrument to assess whether the students knew the required content or could perform the required tasks. The standards-based National Education Goals (Goals 2000) were set by the U.S. Congress in the 1990s. Many of these goals were based on the principles of outcomes-based education, and not all of the goals were attained by the year 2000 as was intended. The standards-based reform movement culminated in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which as of 2009 is still an active nation-wide mandate in the United States.
OBE reforms usually had other disputed methods, such as constructivist mathematics and whole language, added onto them.[dubious -- discuss] Some proponents[who?] advocated replacing the traditional high school diploma with a Certificate of Initial Mastery. Other reform movements were school-to-work, which would require all students except those in a university track to spend substantial class time on a job site. See also Uncommon Schools.

In the first decade of the 21st century, several issues are salient in debates over further education reform:[6]
Longer school day or school year
After-school tutoring
Charter schools, school choice, or school vouchers
Smaller class sizes[7]
Improved teacher quality
Improved training
Higher credential standards
Generally higher pay to attract more qualified applicants
Performance bonuses ("merit pay")
Firing low-performing teachers
Internet and computer access in schools
Track and reduce drop-out rate
Track and reduce absenteeism
English-only vs. bilingual education
Mainstreaming special education students
Content of curriculum standards and textbooks
Funding, neglected infrastructure, and adequacy of educational supplies
Student rights

According to a 2005 report from the OECD, the United States is tied for first place with Switzerland when it comes to annual spending per student on its public schools, with each of those two countries spending more than $11,000 (in U.S. currency).[8] Despite this high level of funding, U.S. public schools lag behind the schools of other rich countries in the areas of reading, math, and science.[9] A further analysis of developed countries shows no correlation between per student spending and student performance, suggesting that there are other factors influencing education. Top performers include Singapore, Finland and Korea, all with relatively low spending on education, while high spenders including Norway and Luxembourg have relatively low performance.[10] One possible factor, is the distribution of the funding. In the US, schools in wealthy areas tend to be over-funded while schools in poorer areas tend to be underfunded.[11] These differences in spending between schools or districts may accentuate inequalities, if they result in the best teachers moving to teach in the most wealthy areas.[12] It has also been shown that the socioeconomic situation of the students family has the most influence in determining success; suggesting that even if increased funds in a low income area increase performance, they may still perform worse than their peers from wealthier districts.

Starting in the early 1980s, a series of analyses by Eric Hanushek indicated that the amount spent on schools bore little relationship to student learning.[13] This controversial argument, which focused attention on how money was spent instead of how much was spent, led to lengthy scholarly exchanges.[14] In part the arguments fed into the class size debates and other discussions of "input policies."[15] It also moved reform efforts towards issues of school accountability (including No Child Left Behind) and the use of merit pay and other incentives.

There have been studies that show smaller class sizes[16] and newer buildings [17] (both of which require higher funding to implement) lead to academic improvements. It should also be noted that many of the reform ideas that stray from the traditional format require greater funding.

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There is strong evidence that economic growth has been accompanied by growth in both spending and participation in schooling.

Education of a Nation

1867: Federal Dept. of Education is formed

1870: First report by the new Education Department:

7 million children enrolled in elementary school

80,000 in secondary schools

9,000 college degrees awarded.


30 million enrolled in public elementary schools

11 million enrolled in secondary schools.

Over 1.5 million bachelor’s and higher degrees were awarded.

2010 (latest figures, released in 2012):

67 million enrolled in public elementary school

24.7 million in secondary schools

6.6 million in degree granting post secondary schools

In the second half of the 20th century: U.S. is global leader in education, with largest supply of highly qualified people in its adult labor force of any country in the world.

FACT: As the U.S. population nearly doubled between 1950 and 2000, the labor force has also grown, from 62 million in 1950 to 149 million in 2005.

This tremendous stock of highly educated human capital helped the United States to become the dominant economy in the world and to take advantage of the globalization and expansion of markets.

But that lead has shrunk significantly over the past decade:

Over the next 50 years: the labor force is projected to grow at about 0.6 percent per year as baby boomers retire. As a result, there are mounting concerns about future growth of the U.S. economy.

FACT: By 2018, 63 percent of U.S. jobs will require some form of post-secondary education or training.

41%: percentage of adults today who have a college degree in America.

Falling Behind:

Percentage of Population Achieving High School Graduation or Equivalent

Germany 100 %

Japan and Finland, more than 90 %

South Korea, about 90 %

Switzerland and the Slovak Republic, mid 80%

New Zealand, slightly above 70 %

U.S. 70 %

Portugal, Spain, Sweden, between 60-70 %

THE GOOD NEWS: At the higher education level, the United States has a strong system that is admired around the world and is a world leader in research.
MORE GOOD NEWS: The U.S. tied for first in University and college graduation rates.
MORE GOOD NEWS: 18 of the top 20 universities in the world are in America.

NOT SUCH GOOD NEWS: by 2008, US ranked 15th among 29 countries with comparable data in number of educated students

MORE NOT SUCH GOOD NEWS: the United States falls to 10th place in the rankings when it comes to the proportions of younger adults aged 25 to 34 who have an associate’s degree or higher

REALLY NOT SUCH GOOD NEWS: Looking ahead to 2020, the U.S. proportion of that global talent pool will shrink even further as China and India, with their enormous populations, rapidly expand their secondary and higher education systems.

FACT: If the U.S. high school graduation rate remains flat and China continues on its current path, China will be graduating a higher proportion of students from high school within a decade.

200 million: number of Chinese students in elementary and secondary education, compared with 66 million in the U.S.
Students in Latvia, Chile and Brazil are making gains in academics 3X faster than American students; while those in Portugal, Hong Kong, Germany, Poland, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Colombia and Lithuania are improving at 2X the rate.
Researchers estimate that gains made by students in those 11 countries equate to about two years of learning.
Each additional year of schooling appears to raise earnings by about 10 percent in the United States.

The Global Talent Pool is Shifting:

The rise of Asia is one of the most critical developments of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
1980 to 1990: Japan boomed, world-class companies like Sony, Honda, Toyota, and Nissan achieving great success in industries where the United States had once been dominant.

China’s GDP tripled between 1980 and 2003, increasing from USD$12 trillion to USD$36 trillion, making it the world’s second-largest economy; it is expected to grow to USD $60 trillion by 2020

Educational trajectory: The shift in education

Most of the top performers are in Asia. Shanghai and Hong Kong led the way, followed by Singapore, South Korea, and Japan.

82 million graduates: At the college level, according to the Chinese Ministry of Education, , a small proportion of the population than the U.S., but still a number greater than America’s 31 million college graduates.

FACT: China expanded the number of students in higher education from 6 million in 1998 to 31 million in 2010, going from almost 10 percent to about 24 percent of the age cohort . And many of these students are studying science and engineering.

The pace of change in high school graduation in some countries has been astounding:
Two generations ago: South Korea had a similar economic output to Mexico and ranked 24th in education among the current 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) countries.

93 %: Today, South Korea has the highest secondary school graduation rate in the world, with 93 percent of the secondary school-age population obtaining a high school diploma, compared with …

77%: in the United States.

At the higher education level, the United States is lagging behind:

Science. In science, U.S. students ranked 23rd among all nations and provinces taking a standardized test.
Math. In math, the United States ranks 31st among all nations and entities taking the test.
Reading. In reading, the United States ranks 14th
Shanghai, China is #1 in all three categories
When the average number of years of schooling in a country was higher, the economy grew at a higher annual rate over subsequent decades. Each additional year of average schooling in a country increased the average 40-year growth rate in GDP by about 0.37 percentage points.

A country able to attain literacy scores 1% higher than the international average will achieve levels of labor productivity and GDP per capita that are 2.5 and 1.5% higher, respectively, than those of other countries.

Shift in the world’s economic giants: a Projection

2013: U.S. is the world’s top economy

2016: Year that China will surpass America as the world’s largest economy

2060: Year India will outstrip the American economy

This infographic originally appeared here .